Food and Beverage | Household Essentials | Industrial/Chemical

Food and Beverage

Beverages (e.g. juice, etc.) Milk Tomato Juice/Purée Sauce
Beverages Milk apli003 apli004
Viscosity is a critical parameter in beverage manufacturing, from the production phase all the way until the product reaches consumers. In regards to milk, aside from whole milk (3.25%), there is reduced fat milk (2%), low-fat milk (1%) and nonfat
(skim) milk. In general, nonfat milk has the lowest viscosity.
Tomato juice or purée must always flow through the production line under a constant, homogenized state. Viscosity management is indispensable to this process. There are many kinds of sauce. These include (in ascending order of viscosity): Worcestershire sauce, thicker Worcester sauce and pork cutlet sauce. In Japan, there are approximate levels or grades for viscosity determined by JAS.
Ketchup Mayonnaise Olive Oil Honey
Ketchup Mayonnaise Olive Oil Honey
Ketchup, a pseudoplastic fluid, is characterized by its propensity to remain in its bottle even when turned
upside-down. Applying a bit of force (squeezing) to the bottle causes the ketchup to flow out. It is also known
for reacting differently at varying temperatures.
Mayonnaise also remains in its bottle, even when turned sideways or upside-down and maintains high viscosity. The greater the force applied, the easier it will flow out and the viscosity will decrease. There are many vegetable based oils that are Newtonian fluids (a fluid that does not change viscosity even when force is applied). Olive oil is a Newtonian fluid. Honey is a Newtonian fluid. Its viscosity is not affected by force and speed. Only temperature can cause a change in viscosity.
Jam Yogurt Butter/Margarine Japanese Curry (curry roux)
Jam Yogurt Butter/Margarine Japanese Curry (curry roux)
Imagine spreading jam on a piece of toast. The jam easily glides across the toast. Viscosity is a crucial factor in
making jam spreadable. Managing the viscosity can be quite difficult, as jam contains solids.
Numerous factors throughout the manufacturing process, such as how much fat is left in the yogurt,
pasteurization and pH management affect the final product and texture (viscosity).
Butter is a Bingham plastic (a type of non-Newtonian fluid). It can not flow unless some degree of force is
applied, but applying force past a certain degree causes it to become more malleable in proportion to the force.
Thickened curry (roux) is quite mainstream in Japan. Thickened curry is made by applying heat to flour, which
changes it into a more paste-like consistency, resulting in an increase in viscosity. Even in the final processing
stage of being sealed into a retort pouch, the curry roux must maintain the same viscosity to allow the same
amount to extrude every time the same amount of force is applied.
Viscosity measurements can be used to check and manage the gelling process of gelatin or agar. However, if
the gelatin or agar completely solidifies during viscosity measurement, a spindle-shaped gap will form,
preventing measurements from being taken.

Household Essentials

Toothpaste Shampoo and Conditioner Tomato Juice/Purée  
Toothpaste Shampoo and Conditioner Tomato Juice/Purée
Toothpaste with a paste-like consistency is a Bingham plastic. It will not flow out unless the tube is squeezed. It is important for toothpaste to be at optimal viscosity. After applying the appropriate amount onto a toothbrush, toothpaste at just the right viscosity will break cleanly from the tube and retain its shape without flattening. Conditioner must have a particularly high viscosity, as it coats every single strand of hair. The components used
in shampoo and conditioner may not mix well, but adding viscosity ensures that they are evenly maintained.
Viscosity measurements and research in the rheological properties of cosmetics is conducted in order to give
even slightly viscous cosmetics a smooth, light, easily spreadable quality when applied.


Adhesives Water glass Resins/Polymers Photopolymers
(used in 3D printing)
Adhesives Water glass Resins/Polymers Sauce
There are many types of adhesives for different purposes and applications. For example, structural adhesives include general adhesive for temporary bonding, gap-filling adhesive and adhesive used for coating purposes.
Gap-filling adhesives: properties, such as bond strength, leveling (smoothness) and ease/difficulty of flow are assessed through viscosity measurements.

Water glass is also commonly known as, "Sodium silicate." It is often used in soaps and adhesives. It is also used in a wide variety of fields, such as engineering, paper manufacturing and pharmaceuticals. Water glass has an extraordinarily high viscosity. Various kinds of resins and polymers have appeared in recent years. In addition to ascertaining their properties, viscosity assessment is also an absolute must. With the spread of 3D printers, photopolymers have suddenly gained traction in the global market. When
photopolymers are exposed to light and heat, their viscosity increases and they harden.
Paint/Pigment/Varnish/Insulators Slurry/Ceramic Slurry (ceramic mold casting)
Photopolymers(used in 3D printing) Slurry/Ceramic Slurry (ceramic mold casting)
Paint (brush application): good brushability and drip-resistant. Tends to have a low viscosity under a high-shear rate and high structural viscous properties under a low-shear rate.
Spray painting (coating): types of spray painting include air spray painting, airless spray painting and electrostatic coating. Most air spray paints have the same structural viscous properties as paint for brush applications. Airless spray painting and electrostatic coating is utilized in applications such as the final coating in automobile painting. As such, great emphasis is placed on the appearance and finish of the paint. Compared to paint for brush applications and air spray paint, most airless spray paints have a low viscosity, with similar properties to Newtonian fluids. The leveling of the paint after it's applied affects the overall appearance of the finished product.
Electrodeposition (electrophoretic deposition): used for applying coatings to complex shapes/objects. Through electrodeposition, a film of coating is created on the surface of the target object. The object undergoes a baking or drying process, which makes the surface become smooth. This (leveling) is an extremely critical part of the process. It is necessary to use paint with viscosity sensitive to temperature.
"Slurry" indicates a fluid which contains solid, suspended granules. Due to its properties, if it is not mixed, it
may precipitate. Viscosity management is critical for ensuring a smooth transition.
Glycerin Hydraulic Fluids Lubricant Cutting Fluids
Glycerin Hydraulic Fluids Lubricant Cutting Fluids
Glycerin is highly viscous and it's a great moisturizer. It is often added to cosmetics to increase their moisturizing properties. It is also used in various food products as a thickening agent and as a humectant in pharmaceuticals. The viscosity of hydraulic fluid tends to decrease as the temperature rises. If the viscosity decreases too much,
it may lead to deterioration in the lubricating properties of the fluid and adversely affect pump efficiency. In
contrast, viscosity tends to increase as the temperature decreases. This can increase the usual amount of
force needed to operate the pump, and may accelerate wear and tear. This is why you must select a hydraulic
fluid with the optimal viscosity for your application.
The viscosity of lubricant is a vital element, of which the life span is affected by the wear and tear of machinery.
Depending on the viscosity, if too much heat is generated, the life span of a lubricant may be reduced. Not only
does this increase costs, it also shortens the life span of the machinery. This is why managing the viscosity of
lubricant is of the utmost importance.
A lot of heat is generated during machining processes. Cutting fluid has a low viscosity, which makes it
well-suited for effectively dissipating heat. Low viscosity is also necessary for facilitating circulation and
eliminating impurities. However, to ensure precision and control when spraying or coating, the viscosity must
not be too low. Managing the viscosity of cutting oil is essential.